Sports General Resources

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  • Energy Systems

    The human body has three primary or major energy systems that produce the necessary ATP (adenosine triphosphate: the body’s energy source) to enable the muscles to perform work. These are:

    • Phosphagen System (anaerobic)
    • Glycolytic system (anaerobic)
    • Oxidative Phosphorylation System (aerobic)

    The first two systems use anaerobic type reactions, which means they do not rely on external (breathing) oxygen to supply energy to the muscles. The last system uses oxygen, so it is an aerobic type reaction.

  • Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Lactic Threshold

    When playing a sport, doing exercises or training, as the intensity level increases, the body consumes more oxygen; up to a point where the body cannot consume more oxygen and the anaerobic energy system plays a more predominantly role, than the aerobic system. Maximal Oxygen Uptake (V̇O2 max); can then be defined as: the highest rate of oxygen consumption attainable by the human body during maximal or exhaustive exercise.
  • Training Effect On V̇O2 max;Max & Lactic Threshold

    The effects of training on V̇O2; max;maximum uptake and the lactic threshold are discussed in this section.
  • Aerobic Fitness Rating

    Tables showing generally accepted norms of aerobic fitness based on maximal oxygen uptake for males and females are found in this section.
  • Typical Maximal Oxygen Uptake

    V̇O2 max;varies greatly between individuals and even between elite athletes that compete in the same sport. Typical maximal oxygen uptake for elite players for several sports are found in this section.
  • Training Concepts

    During most sport games, especially team sports, the body uses all energy systems at different intensities, times and proportions.  This is why sport specific training is very important in athletic performance. It must first be recognized the difference between anaerobic and aerobic metabolism, and how the energy is distributed among these systems while performing a sports event. Then, adapt the training while establishing critical parameters for key aspects.
  • Training Zones

    During a game in most sports, particularly team sports, the body uses all three main energy system at different times and proportions. This is why sport specific training is very important in athletic performance. It must first be recognized the difference between anaerobic and aerobic metabolism, and then adapt the training to one’s sports.
  • Training Zones Used by One's Sport?

    During a game, an athlete spends time in different proportions in all four zones; so the question is in which zone do you spend most of your time?
  • Recommended Drills

    There are quite a number of drills that can be used to improve one's sport conditioning. If one doesn't have professional coaches or experience, the selection of drills can be confusing and time consuming.
  • Runner's Performance Prediction

    Predicting race performance is not an exact science. There are number of models and methods available, each with its own merits as well as problems. Care should be employed when predicting or using race performance.